Indus civilization map



Best Season: August – May.
Duration: 10 Days.
Zone : open


Karachi – Karachi – Moenjodaro – Karachi – Islamabad – Peshawar – Swat – Upper Swat – Islamabad.

Pakistan has a history dating back to a period of a half a million years. This is the land which played a major role in introducing the concept of culture, society and civilization to this earth. The material collected from the glacial deposits of Soan River comprises of choppers, chopping tools and axes and indicates the stone age in this region. The people of paleolithic Soan survived in the region for a considerable period and transformed themselves gradually from the hunting stage to the conditions of a well-settled life. Excavations at Sarai Khola, Harrapa, Amri, Moenjodaro, Kot Digi and other sites have established that in 2350 B.C. the pre-historic people of the Indus Valley developed a sophisticated society based on agriculture economy.

Gandhara civilization site The site of Mehergarh situated at the foot of the Bolan Pass (Baluchistan) is believed to be the earliest civilization in the world. It pre-dates the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was occupied from 7000 B.C. to 2000 B.C. and is the earliest Neolithic site where we have first evidence of domestication of animals and cereal cultivation and also the center for craftsmanship as early as 7000 B.C. The ages of settlement goes back to about 8000 B.C. and even that early period there were well developed villages with agriculture, the beginning of animal domestications and evidence of long distance trade.

Excavation of beautifully painted pottery, human and animal figures showed economic and social development. This helped to understand the process of formation of urbanized civilization of the Indus Valley in the third millennium B.C.

The Indus Valley civilization flourished here 5000 years ago. The ruins of Moenjodaro in Sind and of Harrappa in the Punjab tell the tale of a highly cultured people. They lived an organized civic life, in cities that had layouts, streets and drainage system.

Gandhar antique in museum The excavations of Harrappa and Moenjodaro suggest that a highly developed civilization lived here about 2500 B.C. This civilization not only possesses a high standard of art and craft but also had a well developed system of pictographic writing. The Indus Valley Civilization flourished for a considerable period till the arrival of the Aryan invaders.

The Indus Valley Civilization can be described as belonging to the Bronze Age at its prime, because wherever excavations have been carried out on wider scale, copper and bronze objects have been found in addition to stone implements. Absence of iron implements helped the archaeologists to determine this age. By 1500 B.C. the Indus Valley Civilization vanished. It is not followed by any other important civilization for 1000 years.

The tomb Jam Nido at Makli Hills Thatta SindhThe story of Ghandara Civilization began with excavation of Taxila. It’s original name, Takshahila, was changed to Taxila by the Greeks. It was the seat of great oriental culture and learning. The greatness that glistens in its pristine glory centuries ago now lies buried in the extensive mounds.

The wealth of excavated sites reveals the richness of the story and recounts the achievements of the past. Set in the heart of a beautiful valley twenty miles north of Rawalpindi, these extinct cities of Ghandara survive as a witness to the rise and fall of many empires and civilizations.

Taxila is famous for its unique Ghandara sculptures excavated from various stupas and monasteries. The Greek influence after Alexander’s invasion can be seen in the exquisite pieces of culture showing classical Indo-Greek characteristics. Endless images of Buddha evokes the life of one of world’s most impressive men of peace. Most of these antiquities are on display at the Taxila Museum.Mohenjodaro archaeological site

Monasteries and remains of the ancient cities are spread over several thousand square miles and can be seen at Mardan, Takh-e-Bhai, Swat and Dir districts. This land is a paradise for historians, archaeologists and nature lovers.